If you do a little more research, many cities in the United States are clearly separated by roads or railroads to enforce racial segregation. Nowadays, these borders are not usually used for this purpose, but as we can see, there are exceptions. Schools in America were still segregated by race in the 1960s, and no matter where someone lived, the color of their skin determined which school they would go to. By the end of 1949, however, only fifteen states had no segregation laws in place.  And only eighteen states had banned segregation in public housing.  Of the remaining states, twenty still allowed segregation in schools, fourteen still allowed segregation on public transportation, and 30 still had laws prohibiting miscegenation.  Justifications for white supremacy were provided by scientific racism and negative stereotypes of African Americans. Social segregation, from housing to laws against interracial chess, was justified to prevent black men from having sex with white women, and in particular the predatory stereotype of the Black Buck.  On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that segregation in public education was unconstitutional, overturning the doctrine of “separate but equal” that had been in place since 1896 and sparked massive opposition among white Americans committed to racial inequality. The Supreme Court`s landmark decision in Brown v.
The Board of Education grew out of several cases challenging racial segregation in school districts across America filed as part of the NAACP`s Legal Defense Fund`s strategy to ban the practice nationwide. In that case, a black man named Oliver Brown sued the Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas, for refusing to allow his daughter Linda to attend elementary school near her home solely because of her race. When the case went to the United States. Thurgood Marshall, a NAACP Supreme Court attorney, argued that segregated schools are harmful and impose a sense of inferiority on black children. Chief Justice Earl Warren echoed this argument, stating that “in the field of public education, the doctrine of `separate but equal` has no place. Segregated educational institutions are inherently unequal. The decision outraged white segregationists as well as civil rights activists. Throughout the South, where state constitutions and state law required separate schools, whites denounced the decision as a tyrannical exercise of federal power. Many white Southern leaders and their voters implemented a strategy of “massive resistance” to delay desegregation.
These groups, made up of elected officials, business leaders, community residents, and parents, have used a range of tactics and weapons against the growing civil rights movement, including bombing and murdering civil rights activists, criminalizing peaceful protests, and using economic intimidation and threats to prevent black participation in civil rights activities. In 1960, only 98 of Arkansas` 104,000 black students attended non-segregated schools, as did 34 out of 302,000 in North Carolina, 169 out of 146,000 in Tennessee, and 103 out of 203,000 in Virginia. In the five Deep South states, in the fall of 1960, each of the 1.4 million black schoolchildren attended separate schools. At the beginning of the 1964-65 school year, less than 3 percent of African-American children in the South attended school with white students, and in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina, that number remained well below 1 percent. The Brown decision marked the beginning of a massive cultural shift in racial dynamics in the United States and also launched an organized mass opposition movement. Most white Americans, especially in the South, supported segregation. To learn more about this change, read the EJI Segregation in America report. The 1877 compromise to win Southern support for the presidential election (a corrupt agreement) led the government to withdraw the last federal troops from the South.
White Democrats had regained political power in all Southern states.  These white Southern “savior” governments enacted Jim Crow laws that officially separated the population from the country. Jim Crow laws were a manifestation of authoritarian rule specifically directed against a racial group.  In 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court (Burger Court) in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education upheld the desegregation of students in order to achieve integration. In 1954, segregation in public schools (publicly funded) was adopted by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren in the landmark Brown v. School Board.    In some states, it took many years to implement this decision, while in other cases such as Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v.
the United States (1964), the Warren Court continued to rule against Jim Crow.  In general, the remaining Jim Crow laws were repealed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Segregation was also barely enforced in boxing. In 1908, Jack Johnson became the first African-American to win the World Heavyweight Title.  Johnson`s personal life (i.e., his publicly acknowledged relationships with white women) made him very unpopular with many Caucasians around the world. It wasn`t until 1937, when Joe Louis defeated German boxer Max Schmeling, that the general American public welcomed and accepted an African-American as the world heavyweight champion.  Racial segregation became law in most parts of the southern United States until the civil rights movement.